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author = {Shukla, A. and Singla, E. and Wahi, P. and Dasgupta, B.},
title = {A Direct Variational Method for Planning Monotonically Optimal Paths for Redundant Manipulators in Constrained Workspaces},
journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
volume = {61},
number = {2},
pages = {209-220},
year = {2012},
issn = {0921-8890},
doi = {10.1016/j.robot.2012.08.012},
url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921889012001443?v=s5},
abstract = {This paper proposes a path planner for serial manipulators with large number of degrees of freedom,
working in cluttered workspaces. Based on the variational principles, this approach involves formulating
the path planning problem as constrained minimization of a functional representing the total joint move-
ment over the complete path. We use modi ed boundary conditions at both ends of the trajectory to nd
more suitable start and end con gurations. The concept of monotonic optimality is introduced in order to
optimize the manipulator paths between the resulting end con gurations. For obstacle avoidance, volume
and proximity based penalizing schemes are developed and used. The presented planner uses a global
approach to search for feasible paths and at the same time involves no pre-processing task. A variety of
test cases have been presented to establish the ecacy of the presented scheme in providing good quality
paths. The extent of advantage accruing out of the measures of free end-con gurations and monotonic
optimality are also analyzed quantitatively.},

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